Pfingsten Events Tipps für das Pfingswochenende
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Spring fun fairs are held on the long Pentecost weekend in many areas of Germany. There are many local customs that go back to pre-Christian times.
Birch trees are decorated with large wreaths Pfingstbaumpflanzen in parts of the state of Lower Saxony. Birch trees are just coming into leaf at this time of year and symbolize the fertile spring and summer seasons.
Young men in rural areas may attach a birch sprig to the wall beneath an unmarried woman's window.
This fertility rite can be traced back thousands of years. Large wreaths Pfingstenkranz are erected in two squares in the town of Oelde in the state of North Rhine-Westphalia.
Each wreath consists of three poles wrapped in greenery and joined at the top to make a structure about nine meters 30 feet high.
People dance around the decoration and sing traditional songs. The cattle were traditionally in stables and fields near villages in rural areas during winter and early spring.
They were taken to fields further away from the villages, often high in the mountains, at Pentecost. The strongest animals were decorated with flowers and plants and led the procession.
The custom of decorating prize cattle and leading them through the streets is still alive in some rural areas, particularly in southern Germany's mountainous areas.
Public life in Germany on Pentecost is similar to that on Sundays. Post offices, banks, stores and other businesses are closed.
However, some tourist stores may be open and stores at railway stations, airports and along highways are usually open. There are some restrictions on selling alcohol, public performances and dancing.
Public transport services usually run to the normal Sunday timetable, but there may be some local variations. Biblical commentator Richard C.
Lenski has noted that the use of the term "Pentecost" in Acts is a reference to the Jewish festival.
He writes that a well-defined, distinct Christian celebration did not exist until later years, when Christians kept the name of "Pentecost" but began to calculate the date of the feast based on Easter rather than Passover.
Peter stated that this event was the beginning of a continual outpouring that would be available to all believers from that point on, Jews and Gentiles alike.
In these sermons, dating to the 5th century, Leo discusses Macedonianism, which the Catholic Church denounced as heresy because Macedonianism considered the Holy Spirit inferior to the Father and Son, thereby undermining the Trinity.
Leo discusses other Catholic doctrine pertaining to the Holy Spirit, especially emphasizing the Spirit's relationship to the Father and Son of the Trinity and the Catholic Church.
He draws an analogy between Jewish practices and the Christian feast day: "As once to the Hebrew people, freed from Egypt, the law was given on Mt.
Sinai on the fiftieth day after the sacrifice of the lamb, so after the Passion of the Christ when the true Lamb of God was killed, on the fiftieth day from his Resurrection, the Holy Spirit came down on the apostles and the community of believers.
He describes the descent of the Holy Spirit upon the disciples on Pentecost as the fulfillment of a "long-awaited promise".
The service is celebrated with an All-night Vigil on the eve of the feast day , and the Divine Liturgy on the day of the feast itself.
Orthodox churches are often decorated with greenery and flowers on this feast day, and the celebration is intentionally similar to the Jewish holiday of Shavuot , which celebrates the giving of the Mosaic Law.
The feast itself lasts three days. In the Orthodox Tradition , the liturgical color used at Pentecost is green , and the clergy and faithful carry flowers and green branches in their hands during the services.
John Chrysostom warned his flock not to allow this custom to replace spiritually adorning themselves with virtue in reception of the Fruits of the Holy Spirit.
An extraordinary service called the "Kneeling Prayer" is observed on the night of Pentecost. This is a Vespers service to which are added three sets of long poetical prayers, the composition of Saint Basil the Great , during which everyone makes a full prostration , touching their foreheads to the floor prostrations in church having been forbidden from the day of Pascha Easter up to this point.
Uniquely, these prayers include a petition for all of those in hell, that they may be granted relief and even ultimate release from their confinement, if God deems this possible.
All of the remaining days of the ecclesiastical year , until the preparation for the next Great Lent , are named for the day after Pentecost on which they occur for example, the 13th Tuesday After Pentecost.
Theologically, Orthodox do not consider Pentecost to be the "birthday" of the Church; they see the Church as having existed before the creation of the world cf.
The Shepherd of Hermas . The Orthodox icon of the feast depicts the Twelve Apostles seated in a semicircle sometimes the Theotokos Virgin Mary is shown sitting in the center of them.
At the top of the icon, the Holy Spirit, in the form of tongues of fire, is descending upon them. At the bottom is an allegorical figure, called Kosmos , which symbolizes the world.
Although Kosmos is crowned with earthly glory he sits in the darkness caused by the ignorance of God. He is holding a towel on which have been placed 12 scrolls, representing the teaching of the Twelve Apostles.
This feast is followed with the "Apostles Fast" which has a fixed end date on the fifth of the Coptic month of Epip [which currently falls on July 12, which is equivalent to June 29, due to the current day Julian-Gregorian calendar offset].
The fifth of Epip is the commemoration of the Martyrdom of St. Peter and Paul. The liturgical celebrations of Pentecost in Western churches are as rich and varied as those in the East.
The main sign of Pentecost in the West is the color red. It symbolizes joy and the fire of the Holy Spirit. Priests or ministers, and choirs wear red vestments , and in modern times, the custom has extended to the lay people of the congregation wearing red clothing in celebration as well.
Red banners are often hung from walls or ceilings to symbolize the blowing of the "mighty wind"  and the free movement of the Spirit.
The celebrations may depict symbols of the Holy Spirit, such as the dove or flames, symbols of the church such as Noah's Ark and the Pomegranate , or especially within Protestant churches of Reformed and Evangelical traditions, words rather than images naming for example, the gifts and Fruits of the Spirit.
These symbolize the renewal of life, the coming of the warmth of summer, and the growth of the church at and from the first Pentecost.
These flowers often play an important role in the ancestral rites, and other rites, of the particular congregation. For example, in both Protestant and Catholic churches, the plants brought in to decorate for the holiday may be each "sponsored" by individuals in memory of a particular loved one, or in honor of a living person on a significant occasion, such as their Confirmation day.
In German speaking and other Central European countries, and also in overseas congregations originating from these countries through migration, green branches are also traditionally used to decorate churches for Pentecost.
Birch is the tree most typically associated with this practice in Europe, but other species are employed in different climates.
The singing of Pentecost hymns is also central to the celebration in the Western tradition. Some traditional hymns of Pentecost make reference not only to themes relating to the Holy Spirit or the church, but to folk customs connected to the holiday as well, such as the decorating with green branches.
Grundtvig verse 3: " Yea were every tree endowed with speech and every leaflet singing …". This has been translated into many languages and is sung in many denominations today.
As an invocation of the Holy Spirit, Veni Creator Spiritus is sung during liturgical celebrations on the feast of Pentecost. Trumpeters or brass ensembles are often specially contracted to accompany singing and provide special music at Pentecost services, recalling the Sound of the mighty wind.
Another custom is reading the appointed Scripture lessons in multiple foreign languages recounting the speaking in tongues recorded in Acts — In the Middle Ages , cathedrals and great churches throughout Western Europe were fitted with a peculiar architectural feature known as a Holy Ghost hole: a small circular opening in the roof that symbolized the entrance of the Holy Spirit into the midst of the congregation.
At Pentecost, these Holy Ghost holes would be decorated with flowers, and sometimes a dove figure lowered through into the church while the narrative of Pentecost was read.
Holy Ghost holes can still be seen today in European churches such as Canterbury Cathedral. Similarly, a large two dimensional dove figure would be, and in some places still is, cut from wood, painted, and decorated with flowers, to be lowered over the congregation, particularly during the singing of the sequence hymn , or Veni Creator Spiritus.
In other places, particularly Sicily and the Italian peninsula , rose petals were and are thrown from the galleries over the congregation, recalling the tongues of fire.
In modern times, this practice has been revived, and adapted as well, to include the strewing of origami doves from above or suspending them, sometimes by the hundreds, from the ceiling.
In some cases, red fans, or red handkerchiefs, are distributed to the congregation to be waved during the procession, etc.
Other congregations have incorporated the use of red balloons, signifying the "Birthday of the Church". These may be borne by the congregants, decorate the sanctuary, or released all at once.
For some Protestants , the nine days between Ascension Day , and Pentecost are set aside as a time of fasting and universal prayer in honor of the disciples' time of prayer and unity awaiting the Holy Spirit.
Similarly among Roman Catholics , special Pentecost novenas are prayed. The Pentecost Novena is considered the first novena, all other novenas prayed in preparation of various feasts deriving their practice from those original nine days of prayer observed by the disciples of Christ.
While the Eve of Pentecost was traditionally a day of fasting for Catholics, contemporary canon law no longer requires it.
Both Catholics and Protestants may hold spiritual retreats , prayer vigils , and litanies in the days leading up to Pentecost.
In some cases vigils on the Eve of Pentecost may last all night. Pentecost is also one of the occasions specially appointed for the Lutheran Litany to be sung.
From the early days of Western Christianity, Pentecost became one of the days set aside to celebrate Baptism.
In Northern Europe Pentecost was preferred even over Easter for this rite, as the temperatures in late spring might be supposed to be more conducive to outdoor immersion as was then the practice.
It is proposed that the term Whit Sunday derives from the custom of the newly baptized wearing white clothing, and from the white vestments worn by the clergy in English liturgical uses.
The holiday was also one of the three days each year along with Christmas and Easter Roman Catholics were required to confess and receive Holy Communion in order to remain in good ecclesiastical standing.
Holy Communion is likewise often a feature of the Protestant observance of Pentecost as well.
It is one of the relatively few Sundays some Reformed denominations may offer the communion meal, and is one of the days of the year specially appointed among Moravians for the celebration of their Love Feasts.
Ordinations are celebrated across a wide array of Western denominations at Pentecost, or near to it. In some denominations, for example the Lutheran Church, even if an ordination or consecration of a deaconess is not celebrated on Pentecost, the liturgical color will invariably be red, and the theme of the service will be the Holy Spirit.
Above all, Pentecost is a day to hold Confirmation celebrations for youth. Flowers, the wearing of white robes or white dresses recalling Baptism, rites such as the laying on of hands , and vibrant singing play prominent roles on these joyous occasions, the blossoming of Spring forming an equal analogy with the blossoming of youth.
The typical image of Pentecost in the West is that of the Virgin Mary seated centrally and prominently among the disciples with flames resting on the crowns of their heads.
Occasionally, parting clouds suggesting the action of the "mighty wind",  rays of light and the Dove are also depicted.
Of course, the Western iconographic style is less static and stylized than that of the East, and other very different representations have been produced, and, in some cases, have achieved great fame such as the Pentecosts by Titian , Giotto , and el Greco.
Paul already in the 1st century notes the importance of this festival to the early Christian communities.
After the council, Pentecost Monday is no longer solemnized. Nevertheless, Pentecost Monday remains an official festival in many Protestant churches, such as the Lutheran Church of Sweden , the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland , and others.
In the Extraordinary Form of the liturgy of the Roman Catholic Church, as at Easter, the liturgical rank of Monday and Tuesday of Pentecost week is a Double of the First Class  and across many Western denominations, Pentecost is celebrated with an octave culminating on Trinity Sunday.
Marking the festival's importance, in several denominations, such as the Lutheran, Episcopal, and United Methodist churches, and formerly in the Roman Catholic Church, all the Sundays from the holiday itself until Advent in late November or December are designated the 2nd, 3rd, Nth, Sunday after Pentecost, etc.
In some Evangelical and Pentecostal churches, where there is less emphasis on the liturgical year , Pentecost may still be one of the greatest celebrations in the year, such as in Germany or Romania.
In other cases, Pentecost may be ignored as a holy day in these churches. In many evangelical churches in the United States, the secular holiday, Mother's Day , may be more celebrated than the ancient and biblical feast of Pentecost.
Across denominational lines Pentecost has been an opportunity for Christians to honor the role of the Holy Spirit in their lives, and celebrate the birth of the Church in an ecumenical context.
Several hymns were written and composed for Pentecost , notably Veni Creator Spiritus Come, Creator Spirit , attributed to the 9th-century Rabanus Maurus , and translated throughout the centuries in different languages.
This one and some more are suitable also for other occasions imploring the Holy Spirit, such as ordinations and coronations.
The Lutheran church of the Baroque observed three days of Pentecost. Some composers wrote sacred cantatas to be performed in the church services of these days.
Johann Sebastian Bach composed several cantatas for Pentecost , including Erschallet, ihr Lieder, erklinget, ihr Saiten!
Richard Hillert wrote a Motet for the Day of Pentecost for choir, vibraphone, and prepared electronic tape in Violeta Dinescu composed Pfingstoratorium , an oratorio for Pentecost for five soloists, mixed chorus and small orchestra in Daniel Elder's 21st century piece, "Factus est Repente", for a cappella choir, was premiered in In Italy it was customary to scatter rose petals from the ceiling of the churches to recall the miracle of the fiery tongues; hence in Sicily and elsewhere in Italy Whitsunday is called Pasqua rosatum.
The Italian name Pasqua rossa comes from the red colours of the vestments used on Whitsunday. In France it was customary to blow trumpets during Divine service, to recall the sound of the mighty wind which accompanied the Descent of the Holy Spirit.
Traditionally, Whit Fairs sometimes called Whitsun Ales  took place. Other customs such as morris dancing  and cheese rolling  are also associated with Whitsun.
The Book of Common Prayer only once uses the word "Pentecost" for the festival. Though some [ who? In Port Vila , the capital of Vanuatu , people originating from Pentecost Island usually celebrate their island's name-day with a special church service followed by cultural events such as dancing.